**133/N-Tree Talk-Goat Willow.


There are numerous different species & varieties of willow in England, but the differences many of them are not very marked.  Most willows  like a moist soil, the damper the better & usually  to be found in water meadows or along river  banks with their roots almost  in the water.  The male & female flowers  grow on separate trees.   The first signs of them are furry, silvery tufts breaking out of some of the buds in  the  spring.   The male  flowers  become erect  brushes of golden-tipped stamens while the female flowers are erect  green stems studded with numerous pointed green capsules. When ripe  these capsules burst open & a thick mass of white cotton protrudes, the small seeds each being attached to a cottony filament.   When the tree is in full seed it looks as though it were dotted with little tufts of cotton-wool.


**133/M-Tree Talk-Walnut.


WAB2A walnut is an editable  seed.  Walnuts like other tree nuts must be processed  & stored properly.   High density source of nutrients.  The walnut fruit is enclosed in a green , leatherly, fleshy husk. This husk is inedible.  The husk of walnuts contains  a juice that will readily stain anything in contact, It has been used as a dye for cloth.

**133/L-Tree Talk-Sycamore.


Although widespread & thoroughly  domiciled in England,  this is not a native tree, but was introduced some centuries ago from Europe.  The word  sycamore is derived from the Greek & means a mulberry fig.  It is the name of  given  to a species  of fig in southern   Europe,   with  leaves   resembling   those  the  mulberry.    In  there  ignorance, our ancestors   imagined   the   great   maple  to  be this fig tree because  of a fancied similarity  between the leaves.   Although nobody  now supposes this tree to be  a fig, there are many who do not know that it is a maple.  It grows to a large size with a spreading  rounded crown.    The bark is light grey, smooth in young trees,  but later scaling off in rounded flakes.




**133/K-Tree Talk-Rowan.

This  tree is more commonly known in England as the mountain ash, presumably because its leaves are compound ( pinnate shape ) like those of the ash.  The rowan, however  does not resemble the ash in any other way, nor is it related to the ash , but is one of the apple family.  It is called  in some parts as  the “quickbeam” or “fowler’s  service tree”.  The last name has reference to the fact that bird snarers used to bait their traps with its bright red berries. The  tree was traditionally believed to be a powerful charm against witchcraft, & small bunches  of the twigs used to be nailed up outside cattle sheds to keep   the beasts from harm.  It is a small tree which flourishes on hill- sides & poor  soils,   The bark is quite smooth & a light grey in colour. It produces large number of clusters of small white flowers in the spring.  Often as many as  two hundred in   cluster & are succeeded  by red berries  which are a favourite food of the birds.  The tree is still beautiful in the autumn, when the foliage turns reddish gold. In days gone by, the flexible branches were used to make bows , &  were almost as good as the yew branches for this purpose.

**133/J-Tree Talk-White POPLAR.

WPOPLAR 4This tree can be at once distinguished by its leaves, which have a thick coating of white  down on the underside while their upper surfaces are very dark glossy green.  They vary considerably in shape & are sometimes roughly triangular & sometimes  five-sided.  The margins are uneven but have no teeth.  In winter the twigs & the  small twigs & small buds are also coated with the white down, which might easily be mistaken for a form of blight.  The tree reaches a larger  size than the black poplar & the bark of old trees is very rugged.   In young trees the bark is often   marked with smooth black & white speckled patches.  The white poplar was well known to the ancients  & was consecrated to Hercules according to Greek mythology.

**133/I-Tree talk-Black POPLAR.

Scan0042 This is a native tree & is widely spread.  The leaves are about three inches broad at the base & taper gradually to a point.  The margins are cut into large f lat teeth.
When they first appear they are a ruddy gold,  but later are a dark green.  In winter the buds are long & pointed & are sticky with resin.  The bark is a dark grey &it  is not clear why the tree is called black, unless it is in contrast to the white poplar.

**133/H -Tree Talk-Lombardy POPLAR.

This well known tree needs no description as its tall flame-like shape must be familiar to everybody.  The majority  of  Lombardy poplars in England are male trees, as this kind was the first to be introduced &  the bulk of subsequent planting  has been made by cuttings.  The leaves of  this tree are smaller than those  of the other poplars & are shaped rather than those of the black poplar.